Rice Project 1.45 WORK
This article reports a project that was undertaken to determine current UK dental hospital policy with regard to the management of patients taking therapeutic doses of corticosteroids receiving dental treatment under local anaesthesia. There is variation in the medical management of this patient group, and whether practice should be standardized by means of a national policy document warrants consideration.
Rice Project 1.45
Rice is the staple food of billions of people. Its cultivation is responsible for substantial agricultural greenhouse gas emissions because flooded rice paddies are ideal anaerobic environments for methane-producing microbes that feed on decomposing organic matter. Thus, low-methane rice production techniques are sorely needed.
We investigated two low-methane rice production solutions: Improved Rice Production (profiled here), with techniques suitable to both small- and large-scale operations, and System of Rice Intensification, currently limited to smallholders. This solution replaces conventional paddy rice production in mechanized (non-smallholder) regions.
Given that many rice farming methods are long-entrenched customs, change requires helping farmers see what results are possible, cultivating necessary knowledge and skills, and implementing incentives that make new methods compelling.
Total available land for improved rice production is 111 million hectares, representing non-smallholder rice production. We estimated current adoption of improved rice cultivation (defined as the amount of functional demand supplied in 2014) at 41 million hectares by interpolating the global area under "direct-seeded rice" in 1997 and 2018 (Rao et al., 2007).
We developed five custom adoption scenarios based on the estimation of low, medium, and high adoption rates, which in turn were based on the historical growth of direct-seeded rice and water management available reported in the literature. Some of these scenarios included peak adoption by 2030. Data were collected only from studies that used two or more of these practices: changes to water management (alternate wetting and drying), fertility management, use of aerobic cultivars, no tillage, and direct seeding.
We calculated impacts of increased adoption of improved rice production from 2020 to 2050 by comparing two growth scenarios with a reference scenario in which the market share was fixed at current levels.
Adoption of the solution not only mitigates greenhouse gas emissions but also saves significant amounts of irrigation water. Because improved rice cultivation has many benefits, we project aggressive adoption.
We set methane emissions reduction from improved rice cultivation at 5.3 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare per year, based on 106 data points from 16 sources. We set nitrous oxide emissions at 1.4 metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per hectare per year more than the reference scenario, based on 43 data points from 42 sources. We set carbon sequestration rates at 1.45 metric tons per hectare per year, based on 25 data points from three sources.
First costs of improved rice cultivation are US$0 per hectare because the practices use existing equipment and infrastructure. We calculated net profit at US$640.07 per hectare per year for the solution (based on meta-analysis of 16 data points from six sources), compared with US$449.16 for the conventional practice (based on 33 data points from 16 sources). We calculated the operational cost at US$384.35 per hectare per year (based on 12 data points from five sources), compared with US$655.86 per year for the reference scenario (based on 28 data points from 13 sources).
The emissions impact of Scenario 1 is 9.85 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 2050. Lifetime net profit is US$224.70 billion, and net operational savings is US$462.82 billion. Adoption yields an additional 56 million metric tons of rice between 2020 and 2050.
Scenario 2 reduces emissions by 14.43 gigatons of carbon dioxide equivalent by 2050. Lifetime net profit is US$304.49 billion, and lifetime net operational savings are US$623.39. Adoption yields an additional 83 million metric tons of rice between 2020 and 2050.
Rice is a staple crop of critical importance, particularly in Asia. Rice production is currently a major contributor of methane emissions. Fortunately, low-methane rice production systems are ready to be scaled up. Wide adoption of these practices can have a significant impact on climate change mitigation.
Project Drawdown defines improved rice production as: a set of practices to reduce methane emissions from paddy rice production using alternate wet and dry periods and other strategies. This solution replaces conventional paddy rice production in mechanized (non-smallholder) regions.
Paddy rice farming is a major source of greenhouse gas emissions largely in the form of methane, as flooded rice paddies provide a suitable anaerobic environment for methanogenesis. Yet, rice is a world staple crop of extreme importance, particularly in Asia. Thus, low-methane rice production techniques are sorely needed. Drawdown investigated two categories of low-methane rice production: improved rice production (profiled here), with techniques suitable to both small- and large-scale operations, and System of Rice Intensification, currently limited to the smallholder context.
Improved rice production practices include: changes to water management (alternate wetting and drying); fertility management; use of aerobic cultivars; no-tillage; and direct seeding. Data was collected only from studies that used two or more of these practices.
Total available land is 111 million hectares, representing non-smallholder rice production. Current adoption of improved rice cultivation is estimated at 41 million hectares, by interpolating the global area under "Direct Seeded Rice" in the year 1997 and 2018..
Five custom adoption scenarios were developed based on the estimation of low, medium, and high adoption rates based on the historical growth of direct seeded rice and water management available in the literature. Some of these scenarios include early peak adoption of the solution by 2030.
Adoption of the solution not only mitigates greenhouse gas emissions, but also saves significant amounts of irrigation water used in rice cultivation. As a reflection of improved rice cultivation's many benefits, aggressive adoption of the solution is projected.
Methane emissions reduction from improved rice cultivation is set at 5.3 tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent per hectare per year, based on 106data points from 16 sources. Nitrous oxide emissions reduction is calculated at -1.4 tons of carbon dioxide-equivalent per hectare per year, based on 43 data points from 42 sources (some sources included meta-analysis of country of level data). Sequestration rates are set at 1.45 tons of carbon per hectare per year, based on 25 data points from 3 sources.
First costs of improved rice cultivation are US$0 per hectare, as the practices use existing equipment and infrastructure.2 For all agricultural solutions, it is assumed that there is no conventional first cost, as agriculture is already in place on the land. Net profit is calculated at US$640.07per hectare per year for the solution (based on meta-analysis of 16 data points from 6 sources), compared to US$449.16 per year for the conventional practice (based on 33 data points from 16 sources). While the operational cost is calculated at US$384.35 per hectare per year for the solution (based on 12 data points from 5 sources), compared to US$655.86 per year for the conventional practice (based on the 28 data points from 13 sources).
Total adoption in the Scenario 2 is 111 million hectares in 2050, representing 100 percent of the total suitable land. Of this, 70.3million hectares are adopted from 2020-2050. The impact of this scenario is 13.82 gigatons of carbon dioxide-equivalent by 2050. . Net cost is US$0. Lifetime saving in net profit is US$304.5 billion and operational cost is US$623.4. Yield gains result in an additional yield of 83 million metric tons of rice between 2020-2050.
As the degree of milling increases, the loss of phytochemical compounds beneficial to health occurs, and cellular antioxidant activity decreases. Furthermore, the contents of phenolic compounds have also been shown to decrease by increasing the degree of milling. Thus, by carefully controlling the degree of milling during rice processing, both the sensory quality and nutritional composition could be optimized. Thus, brown rice with a low degree of milling (
There are two types of brown rice, which are germinated and non-germinated. Germinated brown rice is obtained by immersing the brown rice grain in water to initiate germination . The benefits of germinated brown rice are that the nutrients found in brown rice are more easily digested and the texture of brown rice is better . Germination has been employed to improve the texture of cooked brown rice. It also initiates numerous changes in the composition and chemical structure of the bioactive components. Germination could induce the formation of new bioactive compounds, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). The consumption of germinated brown rice is increasing in many Asian countries because of its improved palatability quality and potential health-promoting functions .
Advances in the human genome era have shown that diet plays an important factor in the health and the causation chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. This is because the diet-genome interactions can result in changes especially in the proteome, transcriptome and metabolome. For example, current healthcare practitioners recommend brown rice to be consumed rather than white rice. This is due to the fact that brown rice is more nutritious. One common trait between white rice and brown rice is that they are both gluten free and contain no trans fat or cholesterol . Encouraging people to eat brown rice more is a difficult challenge due to its taste, which is less likeable compared to the taste of white rice . In the United States, more than 70% of rice consumed is white rice, and rice consumption has reached 9.3 kg per capita since the 1930s . In addition, the consumption of brown rice is beneficial for postprandial blood glucose control because brown rice has a lower glycaemic index than white rice (55 vs. 64) . 041b061a72